The Fixed / Variable Conundrum

“To get anywhere, or even to live a long time, a person has to guess, and guess right, over and over again, without enough data for a logical answer.” — Robert Heinlein

Imperfect-Data Mortgage rates are doing things that few people expected one year ago. Variable discounts have been sliced in half and those cunning banks are persuading us to pay disproportionately high fixed rates despite near-record-low funding costs.

Looking forward…

Some say rates have only one way to go from here (up).
Some say rates will stay flat for two years.
Some say rates will drop again soon.

Mortgage shoppers trying to pick a term might find all this uncertainty paralyzing. So what do you do when you don’t know what to do? You take your best educated guess.

There is never enough data to make perfectly optimal mortgage decisions. You’d need a really powerful time machine for that. But understanding the true risks of each term can improve your lot substantially.

On that note, we’ve compiled a fairly comprehensive list of pro-variable-rate and pro-fixed-rate arguments below. At the very bottom, we try to boil it all down.




Why Go Variable?

  1. Statistics, Statistics: 77% of the time, variable wins—historically speaking. That’s according to the usual widely-quoted mortgage research. (This conclusion is based on fully discounted rates.) BMO says variables have been cheaper 83% of the time, but we’re not sure what assumptions they used.
  2. Lower Penalties: People often break their mortgages early, for various reasons (including refinancing, selling, divorce, moving to a mortgage with a better rate/more flexibility, etc.). The average duration of a 5-year variable is about 3.3 years according to bank sources. Most variables let you escape your contract with a 3-month interest penalty, whereas fixed rates can hit you hard with interest rate differential (IRD)—even if rates stay relatively flat (many people don’t know that). “Everyone I know that’s mad about their mortgage attributes it to IRD,” says Peter Majthenyi, one of Canada’s highest volume brokers.
  3. Less Rate Risk: Compared to prior economic recoveries, economists believe that it won’t take as many rate hikes to cool Canada’s overleveraged slow-growth economy this time around. A 3% policy rate may do the trick today, whereas it’s taken a 4.20%+ rate (on average) to bring the economy and inflation to equilibrium in the past (see: neutral policy rate). If true, a 3% key lending rate implies a 5% prime rate over the next five years. That’s a quite tolerable 2% higher than today.
  4. Slower Rate Hikes: CIBC economist Benjamin Tal says: “We know the five-year (fixed) rate is attractive, but we also know short-term rates are not [rising].” The U.S. Fed has pledged to remain on hold till 2013. Moreover, TD says: “The Bank of Canada has repeatedly noted that there are limits to how much Canadian short-term rates can diverge from those in the United States.” Here’s an associated factoid: Since 1996, when the BoC started adjusting rates in 25 bps increments, rate-increase campaigns have lasted an average of 14.6 months, during which time rates increased an average of 170 bps. Of course, by definition, each rate-increase cycle was followed by a plateau, and then a rate decrease cycle.
  5. A Free Option: Variables let you lock in anytime for free. Majthenyi is a big proponent of variables largely for this reason. “If you have huge vacillations in rates and you want to take advantage of those (i.e., lock in if rates drop further, or lock in if rates look like they’ll blast off), you can do it for free in VRM…but not in a fixed.” Being able to renegotiate sooner appeals to Majthenyi, and he applies that logic to shorter fixed terms as well. Even if a 4-year fixed had the same rate as a 2-year fixed for example, he says: “I’d rather come up for renewal sooner so I’d take the 2-year over the 4-year hands down.”
  6. Fixed Payments: Some lenders let you fix your payments so that they don’t move when prime rate moves. Fixed payments, therefore, provide some peace of mind when rates start climbing. The exception is if prime skyrockets and your “trigger rate” is hit (i.e., rates jump so high that you’re not covering all your monthly interest). In that case, your payments will generally be adjusted higher.
  7. Payment Matching: When variable rates are lower than fixed rates, you can increase your variable payments to match a 5-year fixed payment. That whittles down principal faster and cuts your interest paid (not interest rate) by perhaps three-quarters of one percent over five years. For example, if you pay $50,000 of interest over five years on a $300,000 mortgage, this strategy might save you something like $350-$400 in a slow rising rate environment. It’s not as much savings as some advocates of this strategy make it sound, but it’s definitely something. (Note: The precise savings depends on your mortgage terms, rate trends, etc. We’ve made certain assumptions including: a 25-year amortization, a prime – 0.50% rate vs a 2.99% four-year fixed, 100 bps of rate hikes starting Dec. 2012, 100 bps more starting Dec. 2013.)
  8. Timing is Futile: Even if you had the ability to predict rates one year ahead of time, it wouldn’t help. That’s what Prof. Moshe Milevsky found in a 2008 study (See “Locking In” on page seven of this.) The problem is, knowing short-term rates doesn’t help you predict long-term rates, and the majority of mortgages are 3+ years. In the past, short-term rates have often surged, only to fall back within 18-24 months. People who lock in on the way up frequently lose out as a result. Associated fact:  In the four previous rate cycles, rates reversed lower within 4 months (on average) from the last rate hike.

Mortgage-Rates-3 Why Go Fixed?

    1. Research Bias: Historical research clearly establishes that variable rates have had an edge, but past performance does not foretell the future. Rates have fallen steadily since 1981. By definition, variable mortgages can’t help but outperform with that kind of trend.
    2. Cheap Insurance: The difference between today’s variable rates (prime – 0.45% on the street) and good fixed rates (e.g., 2.99% for a 4-year) is remarkably tight at 44 basis points. That “safety premium” is the equivalent of less than two Bank of Canada rate hikes. Knowing that you won’t get skewered by escalating rates is worth something.
    3. Economic Lows: It’s somewhat debatable, but one could assume that we’re somewhere near the bottom of an economic cycle. If so, rates will ascend as the economy makes a comeback. RBC writes: “Our assessment is that the market has become too pessimistic on the growth outlook and that the economy will re-accelerate, resulting in steadily rising rates during 2012.” Adds BMO: “Considering the likely upward trend in interest rates, this may be one of those rare periods when a fixed rate turns out to be the superior choice.” (If you think banks have a fixed-rate bias and that statement makes you cynical, we can’t blame you.)
    4. Abnormally Low Yields: Fixed rates are at generational lows, largely for temporary reasons (like the safe-haven bond buying that’s driving down yields). Remember, bond yields lead fixed mortgage rates. Could yields go lower? Yes. Will they stay that low? Many think not. 1.40%-1.50% is a meagre reward for loaning the government money for five years—however safe it may be. Mind you, people said the same thing about Japanese bonds (exceptions to economic “rules”  never cease).
    5. Certainty: Not having to monitor and time the market means one less thing to worry about in life. If you intend on locking in your variable down the road, you’ll need to be exceptionally accurate with your timing. People who are that prescient may be better off quitting their jobs to manage a hedge fund.
    6. Fixed Demand: When the BoC starts tightening next, some think fixed mortgage rates could shoot up faster than normal. According to John Bordignon of Paradigm Quest, there is as much as $350 billion worth of variable-rate mortgages at the moment. “This is probably the highest level (of outstanding VRMs) we have seen in the Canadian mortgage market.” If there were a flood of variable-to-fixed conversions in any given quarter, and demand for fixed rates doubled in that quarter, “There is just not enough 5-year money out there,” he says. June 2010 provided a small taste of what could happen. “Fixed-rate cost spiked 60 basis points. Merix (a prominent non-bank lender) experienced four times the number of conversions as normal. People panic.” This, of course, increases the risk of locking at a bad rate.
    7. Qualification: High-ratio borrowers cannot always qualify for a variable rate. That’s because lenders approve you based on your ability to make much higher payments (See: qualification rate). But don’t despair, you can always get a fixed-rate today and then go variable at renewal. In fact, when you renew you may not even have to qualify at a higher rate. (Default insurers don’t require requalification on renewal, assuming you’ve paid your mortgage as agreed. That is subject to your lender’s own policies of course.)
    8. Costly Conversion: Variables are sold with the benefit of being able to convert to a fixed rate anytime. But that entails “slippage.” In other words, the fixed rate you’ll get when converting is worse than the rate you may expect. Some banks’ conversion rates are as high as posted – 1%. Meanwhile, those same banks give new customers posted – 1.50%. Never expect a great rate when locking in a variable to a fixed. You’ll get an okay rate, even a decent rate if you’re really lucky, but never a great rate. That slippage multiplied by several months can boost borrowing cost materially.
    9. Assumptions Favour Fixed: When making decisions in uncertainty, you’re forced to make assumptions. If you’re a bearish mortgage analyst, you might assume:
      • Prime rate will stay as is until April 2013 (near when the U.S. Fed’s conditional rate-hold pledge expires)
      • Rates will then rise 150+ bps in the next 1.5 years.

      In this scenario, a 2.99% four-year fixed costs less than a variable over five years, other things being equal (including payment matching for equal monthly payments).


(Click chart to enlarge) 

Parting thoughts…

Term selection relies on so many things:

  • fixed/variable suitability factors
  • the probability of breaking the mortgage early (and needing to pay a penalty)
  • the chance you’ll want/need to lock in
  • interest rates (present and future),
  • etc. etc.

The above conclusions and five years of research have convinced us of one thing. It’s a Vegas-style gamble to select a variable-rate mortgage with intentions of locking in “at the right time.”

You’re better off either:

a) Going variable and staying variable (barring a personal/financial crisis that would necessitate locking in).

b) Going fixed and staying fixed (assuming you find an unusually good fixed rate).

c) Going half fixed and half variable (In that case, you’ll never be more than half wrong.)

Keep in mind, there are lots of fixed terms besides the age-old 5-year. The sweet spot today—assuming economist rate forecasts are remotely accurate—is a 4-year fixed under 3%. You’ll find this through approved Street Capital and Industrial Alliance brokers, among other places (no telling how long that rate will last).

Qualified borrowers should also consider Scotia’s 2-year special. It has a tantalizing fixed rate of 2.49%, which is below most variables on the market.

Whatever you pick, the good news is this. The cost of choosing the wrong term has probably never been lower. Fixed-variable spreads are tight as a vice, money is almost as cheap as ever, and expectations are that long-term rates will stay “lower for longer.” (Economists seem to love that buzzphrase.)

As a result, if you screw up and select the wrong term, it should be a lot less costly than it would have been in years like 1980-81, 1989-90, and 1999-2000.

Rob McLister, CMT

  1. The small differences between 5-year fixed and variable rates today could quickly be closed by any increases in rates. Although variables give you options whether rates are rising or falling, there’s one option you only get with a fixed rate – paying last year’s rate!
    In addition, locking in a variable rate seems harder than it sounds. Even when there are clear signals of rising rates, do you want to do it now or in 3 months? Will they fall again next year? To get that right takes very short-term timing, the hardest kind. At worst you might lock in when rates have already gone too high.

  2. By sheer luck my wife stumbled across this site and let me say it has been an extraordinarily helpful to us.
    I was wondering if somebody might have an opinion on how a half fixed and half variable mortgage would compare to a four year fix. Grateful for any help. Thank you!

  3. I’ve never really understood the “ability to lock in later” argument for VRM. Does anyone *ever* get a good discounted rate when they try to switch from a VRM to a Fixed rate “for free”?

  4. Even broker channel lenders like Merix and Street Capital have two rates, one for new business and one for conversions. Their lock-in rates are always about 10-30 basis points higher in my experience.

  5. If you take a variable mortgage and want to convert later to a fixed rate before term expiry you can only do it without any penalty if you take a fixed rate term that is EQUAL or LONGER than the remaining term on your variable mortgage. Simple as that (but no one explained this important fact in any other posts earlier).
    Scotia has a terific 2 year closed at 2.49%, and I think this is a very good choice since before Sep 2013 I can’t see rates moving anywhere by much. Variable rate makes sense when there is a lot of room for rates to move down, and that’s not the case now, even if they move down by a 0.25% who cares – I sleep at night with my 2.49%. Chances of these cheap rates moving higher in the next 5 years seems more probable.
    So maybe I made a choice a little easier with this explanation for all those renewing soon (just like I have to decide by the end of September which way to go). Variable rate doesn’t make sense for another reason – it is a 5 year term.

  6. “If you take a variable mortgage and want to convert later to a fixed rate before term expiry you can only do it without any penalty if you take a fixed rate term that is EQUAL or LONGER than the remaining term on your variable mortgage.”
    Hi Drazen,
    Appreciate the post. While most people lock in for long-term rate security, you’re absolutely right that borrowers should understand that limitation if they’re hoping to convert to a shorter term.

  7. Hi Denis,
    Thanks for the post and feedback. Based solely on the market’s current rate projections (which are subject to a large margin of error), the 2.99% four-year fixed may entail a somewhat lower hypothetical borrowing cost than a 50/50 hybrid. That said, there may be reasons why a hybrid (or other term) would be more suitable.
    The best bet is to consult with a mortgage professional for a term comparison customized to your requirements.

  8. I am refinancing my current Scotia mortgage next week for the 2-year fixed at 2.49%. This is a fantastic deal in my opinion.
    I refinancned the other half of the mrotgage about 2 months ago at prime minus 0.85% – so I’m paying 2.15% on that one. Given that they are only offering prime minus 0.5% now or 2.50%, I think the 2-year fixed at 2.49% is absolutely the way to go…
    My reasoning is that the BOC (in my opinion) will not lower rates but they will also not raise rates in 2012. By the time I get 18 months into my mortgage, I can early renew without penalty, so that will be in March of 2013 and at that point I’m betting that the variable discounts will again grow to the prime 0.75%~ish area and I can then jump into the variable then.

  9. I just locked in my VRM. I was in a Prime plus product and after the last rounds of increases by the BoC I was paying 3.60% and with almost 3 years remaining my lender’s 4 year fixed rate dropped to 3.10%. I sent in my conversion request and during my decision period that same 4 year rate went back up to 3.39% making my decision that much easier. It’s not 2.99% but quite close and the conversion was free. So, all that being said I think I did quite well in timing my switch to a locked in fixed rate. I’m sure variable rates will be higher before this 4 year term is up and do not think fixed rates for a 4 or 5 year term will ever be lower than 2.99%

  10. I’m glad to help and share some facts I learned after going through 15 renewals in the last 18 years (I got a few more ’till “freedom day”).
    Thank you as well for keeping us informed about mortgage issues as soon as they develop.
    One other important fact about renewals: every mortage, regardless of the term length, is ‘open’ in the last 6 months before end of that term. That means that you can early renew WITHOUT penalty to any term you want (e.g. if you have a 2yr closed term you can renew after 18 months without penalty to any other mortgage term).

  11. Leo, you are probably right with BOC reasoning – it is a wait and see game now for a while. They have no idea what’s going on with the economy, and they don’t react untill the last moment when conditions finaly change for better or worse. To lower prime rate would be admission that we are on the verge of another recesion. To raise rates higher would slow down whatever recovery we currently have. So I also feel that it’ll be a while before any change to prime rate. I’ll be also going with a 2yr closed at 2.49%.

  12. Not every mortgage is open in the last 6 months. The only lender I know with this feature is Scotiabank. The problem from what I hear is that you are forced to take the so-so rate Scotiabank gives you if you try to renew early. A bank will never give you the best rates if they know you can’t leave for 6 months.

  13. Hi, Need a quick advice on choosing variable vs fixed.
    I have locked in variable prime minus .85 from scotia and also have an option of going 2.99% 4 year fixed. Looking at the current market situation which one should I go for?
    Household income close to 140K buying first home

  14. No offense but how can anyone give you advice based on these four lines of information?
    What does your banker or broker say?

  15. I’d like to understand a bit more on slippage upon converting from variable to fixed.
    There’s been alot of comments related to how you’re not getting the best rate out there when you do convert.
    Is there a way for the client to ‘think ahead’ and negotiate a clause in the variable rate mortgage that provide some sort of safety that the best fixed rate will be provided if they were ever to convert?
    Maybe this clause idea doesn’t work, is there something else the client can do?

  16. Ress, not many banks offer capped rate – meaning that your variable rate has a ceiling and won’t go above that no matter how high prime goes during your term. I had it once and the discount on prime wasn’t as high as it would have been if there was no cap on rate.
    Shopping for a mortgage has become like buying a car – everything is negotiable so ask questions.

  17. October 26, 2007
    Globe Says Lock In
    Lock-in-Mortgage Rob Carrick from the Globe & Mail is ringing the alarm. With mortgage rates at 6-year highs and shrinking variable-rate discounts, he says it’s time to lock in now.
    …. Alex Haditaghi, CEO of, said his contacts with bank representatives suggest that fully discounted five-year rates could go as high as 6.5 per cent from their current level around 6 per cent. (back in 2007)
    Bottom line is pay more go fixed, pay less short term or variable.

  18. Hi everyone. Does any of you know a lender that will lend to overseas buyers looking to purchase in Canada. They dont have a location yet as they are looking to where they can get financing. Thanks Ged Ward

  19. Nobody knows then of any lenders that offer financing to expats based overseas. Would great appreciate any assistance as i have a client needing a mortgage. Have tried all the major lender to no avail.

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